Bankruptcy is designed to provide relief from debts. However, all debts are treated the same. While what might happen to any given debt can become a very fact-particular inquiry, there's a few categorizations that are very basic to understanding the bankruptcy process.
An unsecured debt or unsecured claim is one where the creditor does not have any rights in collateral. Strictly speaking, unsecured debt includes both general unsecured debt such as most credit cards, personal loans, unpaid bills, and student loans, as well as priority unsecured debt such as tax claims and alimony, although the term is sometimes used as a synonym for general unsecured debt.